A lawyer is a person who, having a degree in Law and duly registered in the professional association, provides legal services to its clients, through advice and/or assistance in both judicial and extrajudicial proceedings. Within the legal sector, we find general lawyers, as well as specialists in specific branches of law. In this article we are going to review the most common types of lawyers in order to get to know them and to know to which we should turn to them in case of need.
What are the most common typologies?
What are the most common typologies?
Labour lawyers: They specialise in Labour and Social Security Law. They intervene in conflicts between workers and companies and public administrations such as the INSS, the TGSS or the SEPE. The most common matters in which they intervene are dismissals, salary claims, mobbing claims, incapacities, work accidents, holiday conflicts, substantial modification of working conditions, etc. We can find labour lawyers whose clients are only workers, others who only run companies and there are also those who run both workers and companies. In case of intervening in judicial procedures, these are processed mainly in the Social Courts, and in second instance in the Superior Courts of Justice.
Criminal Lawyers: As their name suggests, they are dedicated to Criminal Law, that is to say, to matters in which there has been some type of criminal activity. Their function is to assist and defend the interests of their clients in statements, during the investigation, and in the oral trial phase. If the injured party is the client, its function will be to present the complaint and, if necessary, to appear as an accusation. And, in the event that the alleged offender is brought to trial, his or her task is to defend his or her client from the facts of which he or she is accused so that he or she may be acquitted or, as the case may be, reach an agreement with the prosecutor to limit the possible sentence. In the case of judicial proceedings, they mainly intervene in the Examining Court, the Criminal Court and the Provincial Court. And, in certain cases, they may intervene in the National High Court.
Civil Lawyers: They deal with Civil Law matters. Therefore, they defend the interests of individuals against other individuals, who may be natural or legal persons (companies, entities, etc.). Within this scope, there are very varied cases, from economic debt claims to tort or contractual liability, including divorces, inheritances or incapacitations. Its judicial action is mainly carried out in the First Instance Courts and in the Provincial Court. Likewise, within the Civil Law, nowadays we can find lawyers who are specialists in specific matters such as Real Estate Law, in cases of mortgage foreclosures, evictions, land clauses, etc.
Family Lawyers: Although Family Law is, rather, a sub branch within Civil Law, we can consider it as a specialty since there are many lawyers specialized in Family Law. The most common matters in which they intervene are separations and divorces, and derived from these like the regime of visits of the children, the provisional measures, etc.
Commercial Lawyers: They are those who dedicate themselves to Commercial Law, that is to say, the one that has to do with the business world. In recent years, they have been very much in vogue due to the large increase in insolvency proceedings. However, their task is not limited to the judicial sphere, but they also deal with mergers between companies, the drafting of commercial contracts, the negotiation of agreements, participation in shareholders’ meetings, etc. As far as jurisdiction is concerned, the Commercial Courts are competent and, depending on the chaos, also the Courts of First Instance.
Administrative lawyers: Their field of action is that in which at least one public administration intervenes. They can be conflicts between different administrations or between this one and an individual. It intervenes in the administrative channel by filing pleadings, appeals or appeals for reconsideration and, if necessary, appeals before the contentious-administrative jurisdiction. They intervene in cases such as appeal administrative sanctions, urban planning files or claims for damages due to poor performance of a public service.
Tax lawyers: They specialise in financial and tax law, i.e. everything to do with taxes, levies, etc. Their intervention ranges from advising to carrying out formalities with the Tax Agency and, if necessary, in legal proceedings in contentious-administrative jurisdiction.
As can be seen, there are different types of lawyers according to the different specialities within the Law. Whenever the intervention of a lawyer is necessary, it is best to be a specialist in the subject matter of the case.